Гусаков Николай Васильевич
Cand. Sci. (Eng.), Deputy General Director, JSC “Scientific Research Institute of Modern Telecommunication Technologies” (Russia, 214012, Smolensk, Novo-Leningradskaya st., 10)

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The most modern foreign optoelectronic surveillance spacecrafts (WorldView, QuickBird, GeoEye, KeyHole, Pleiades, Spot, Eros, Cartosat), radar surveillance spacecrafts (RadarSat, SAR-Lupe, Lacrosse, ERS, Terrasar, Envisat, IGS), and radio- and radio engineering reconnaissance spacecrafts (TacSat, Jumpseat, Orion, Vortex, Mentor, Magnum, Mercury, Intruder) have the best resolution on the ground. The fact of work on the main purpose of radar surveillance spacecraft is obvious due to the radiation of the radar signal when probing the Earth surface and can be easily established. Contrarily, the fact of work, for example, of cameras from the target loads of optoelectronic surveillance spacecraft in the optical range is almost impossible to establish directly. Therefore it is necessary to resort to understanding the functioning of optical spacecraft by indirect signs - the fact of dumping the information accumulated in the onboard recorders to remote Earth stations for receiving and processing information both directly and using spacecraft in high orbits (geostationary orbit and highly elliptical orbit). Considering the mutual geometric location of the Earth’s radio monitoring station of radiated signals, a low-orbit Earth remote sensing spacecraft and a repeater spacecraft in high orbits, it is likely to have to receive and process information along the side or rear lobes of the radiation pattern, which imposes additional difficulties on detecting these signals due to their low energy. In this work, methodological approach is developed, practical calculations are carried out, and mathematical modeling is conducted to determine the possibility of receiving information transmitted between an optoelectronic surveillance spacecraft in low orbit and a repeater spacecraft on the geostationary orbit. A model has been developed of the dueling situation of detecting the fact of radiation of remote sensing spacecraft radio signals via the cosmos - cosmos line by ground-based means. The effectiveness of measures to ensure spatial and signal security of satellite communications was evaluated. The approaches to detecting radio signals by accumulation methods, particularly spectral analysis, carrier recovery, autocorrelation signal processing method, were considered, along with the issues of evaluation of the energy characteristics of remote sensing radio relay equipment and determination of the equivalent isotropically radiated power of the side lobes of the radiation pattern of a useful radio signal. The Q-factor and geometric dimensions of antenna systems of radio control facilities were calculated. The results of modeling of radio signal detection processes by carrier recovery with subsequent filtering are provided. The findings might indicate the fact that the means of a foreign equipment are working to collect data from the underlying surface on the territory of the Russian Federation.

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Currently in the USA and Western European countries there are many spacecrafts for Earth remote sensing in the interests of obtaining very high-resolution radio monitoring data with various types of target load: optoelectronic surveillance, radar surveillance, radio- and radio engineering reconnaissance. In this review article, most modern foreign optoelectronic surveillance spacecrafts are considered, including the families with the best resolution on the ground: Worldview, QuickBird, GeoEye, Keyhole, Pleiades, Spot, Eros, Cartosat; radar surveillance: Radarsat, SAR-Lupe, Lacrosse, ERS, Terrasar, Envisat, IGS; radio- and radio engineering reconnaissance: TacSat, Jumpseat, Orion, Vortex, Mentor, Magnum, Mercury, and Intruder. The article also discusses modern space systems for relaying information in high orbits: TDRSS, SDS, EDRS, DRTS, CTDRSS, which provide the possibility of instantaneous transmission of information to its recipients, with account for the characteristics of transponders and the frequency ranges used. The main technical characteristics of remote sensing spacecraft and satellite repeaters, through which the target information is reset to remote information reception and processing points, have been analyzed, summarized, and systematized. This structured review will eventually allow specialists in the aviation and rocket and space industry, dealing with issues of radio monitoring of radiated radio signals, to assess the efficiency of obtaining target information with the required quality based on the results of real-time radio monitoring.

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